The Results Are Amusing

The condition that occurs with different clinical pictures in people who have been infected with COVID-19 is called post-COVID-19 syndrome or “prolonged COVID-19”.

Elderly people and people with many serious medical conditions are most likely to experience symptoms of COVID-19, but even young and healthy people can experience symptoms weeks or months after getting an infection. Especially, Tiredness, shortness of breath, cough, joint pain, chest pain, muscle pain or headache, fast or heavy heartbeat, loss of smell or taste, memory, concentration or sleep problems, rash or hair loss, stress syndrome, depression and anxiety.

COVID-19 may damage all organs. This organ damage can increase the risk of long-term health problems. Major organs that may be affected by COVID-19: Imaging tests performed months after recovery from COVID-19 have shown that even people who experience only mild symptoms of COVID-19 can have permanent damage at their heart muscle. This can increase the risk of heart failure or other heart complications in the future. COVID-19 can often cause long-term damage to the small air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. The resulting scar tissue can cause respiratory problems in the long-term.

COVID-19 can cause diseases such as paralysis, seizures, and temporary paralysis.

COVID-19 may also increase the risk of developing Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.

COVID-19 can increase the possibility of coagulation. While large clots can lead to heart attacks and strokes, it is stated that most of the heart damage caused by COVID-19 is caused by very small clots that block small blood vessels in the heart muscle.

The lungs, legs, liver, and kidneys are other parts of the body that are affected by clots. On the other hand, COVID-19 can weaken blood vessels. This can cause long-term problems in the liver and kidneys. We started rehabilitation and antioxidant treatment after Covid-19 infection in our hospital’s FTR clinic. The results are amusing.


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Breast Cancer which is seen among the women both in our country and world commonly, and the most common cause of death, arises with the uncontrolled cell proliferation in the breast tissue. Breast cancer is observed in the men more less frequently (less than 1% of all breast cancers) compared to women. The breast cancer is among the first ten most common cancers both in the world and our country. Breast cancer continues to be one of every 4 women’s cancers in our country. While the incidence of breast cancer is 47.8 per hundred thousand worldwide, it is 86.4 for Northern European countries, 43.0 for East Asia, 90.3 for the United States and 47.7 for our country.

Approximately 19.000 women are diagnosed as breast cancer in a year in our country. Breast cancer which was diagnosed at a further stage in the past, it can be diagnosed at an early stage by the effect of the screening programs carried out by our ministry and an increase in our early diagnosis rates can be achieved.

Breast cancers detected in the early stages are more successful in their treatment and their quality of life increases significantly. Because of that reason it is possible to detect cancer development at an early stage and to reduce the death rate due to breast cancer in women before clinical findings appear, in case of a possible cancer development in our women, through community-based screenings.

In our country community-based cancer screening has started by establishing Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening and Education Centers (KETEM) then Family Health Centers (ASM) and Healthy Life Centers (SHM) are included to these screening program. Our people are being served free of charge by means of screening programs in accordance with European Union Quality Standards and our state-of-the-art digital mammography devices at the centers mentioned above. Public training and Self-Breast Examination are being given and brochure distribution is being done in these centers.

In our National Cancer Control Program; protection and prevention programs as well as the screening strategies, awareness raising activities of the public are carried out effectively.

Our women must be informed about risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment methods of breast cancer and they should be guided to healthy living conditions that will prevent cancer.


As in all cancer types; the risk of breast cancer can be reduced by consuming foods rich in vegetables and fruits and prepared under appropriate conditions, establishing healthy eating habits, increasing physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding smoking and alcohol use. It can be learned whether you are at a healthy weight by consulting your family doctor. Since there are many studies showing that breastfeeding protects against breast cancer, it is recommended that all mothers breastfeed their babies for at least 2 years.

Lifestyle-related and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer are as follows:

  • Being overweight and obese
  • Not doing physical activity (having a sedentary lifestyle)
  • Have never given birth or have had their first birth after age of 30
  • Using birth control pills and injection
  • Having hormone treatment after menopause
  • Having alcohol: In particular, consumption of more than 1 glass of alcohol (1 beer, 1 glass of wine, 1 double hard alcoholic beverage) per day increases the risk more.

Risk factors that cannot be changed for the breast cancer are as follows:

  • Being a woman: Breast cancer is 100 times more common in women than men.
  • Getting older: As age increases, the risk of breast cancer increases.
  • Having certain inherited genes (especially BRCA1, BRCA2)
  • Having breast cancer history in the family: Having breast cancer in first-degree relatives (mother, sister, daughter) doubles the risk. It is important to note that the majority of women with breast cancer (about 8 out of 10) do not have a family history of breast cancer.
  • Having cancer at one breast of the person: This case increases the risk of cancer at the other breast or at the other parts of the same breast.
  • Having an intense breast tissue.
  • Presence of benign formations (such as fibroadenoma) in the breast
  • Early menstruation (especially before the age of 12)
  • Menopause after age of 55
  • Having radiotherapy to breast.


Knowing how your breasts normally look and feel is an important part of breast health. Diagnosing the breast cancer early provides a successful chance for the treatment. But knowing what to look for cannot substitute for regular mammograms and other screening tests. Screening tests help to diagnose the breast cancer in its early stages before any symptoms appear. The most common symptom of breast cancer; is the palpation and feeling of a painless, growing lump (mass) in the breast. In addition, the following symptoms can also be seen in breast cancer, whether there is a palpable lump (mass) or not:

  • Swelling of all or part of one breast (even if you can feel a distinct lump)
  • Pain at the breast or tit
  • Inflammatory condition with itching and inflammation on the breast skin (eczema)
  • Inverted nipple
  • Orange peel appearance at the breast
  • Irritation of breast skin
  • Unilateral nipple discharge (especially bloody discharge)
  • Swelling in part or all of the breast, change in breast shape
  • Rubescence, crusting, thickening of the breast or nipple skin
  • A lump (mass) in the armpit, sometimes before a lump in the breast is felt, cancer can cause swelling or a lump in the armpit or around the collarbone.

Although any of these symptoms can be caused by conditions other than breast cancer, it’s advised to be examined to a general surgeon to find the cause, when the listed symptoms are seen.


            Breast cancer may not show any symptoms until it reaches advanced stages. Because of that reason, since the above symptoms are not sufficient to make a diagnosis, it is necessary to apply to the nearest health centers. Early diagnosis of breast cancer increases the chances of success in treatment and survival. For this reason, it is recommended that all women between the ages of 40-69 have a mammogram every 2 years. The most important factor in early diagnosis, the awareness of the person on this issue, the easy acceptance of the applied method by women, the success of screening methods with having few side effects, easy application, free and economical. The following methods are taught and applied to women in our screening centers, especially for early diagnosis.


BSE is an examination method that women can easily perform at home at any time. In order to use BSE, it is necessary to receive adequate training on this subject and to apply what has been learned continuously, regularly and periodically. It is sufficient to apply to our centers to receive training.

Women should do breast self-examination every month after 20 years old. During the examination it is checked whether the image of both breasts is symmetrical by standing in front of the mirror. Nipple and skin collapse or recession, skin redness and edema are examined. With this examination, tumors close to the skin and nipples can be noticed by the woman herself at an early stage. A woman who examines herself regularly can distinguish a newly developing mass, a recession or discoloration of the breast skin or nipple, and an asymmetrical appearance. The masses that are suspicious of cancer are harder than other breast tissue (walnut-like), with indistinct borders, limited movement and usually painless. A woman who notices a mass in her breast should immediately consult her doctor. In addition, she should go to a doctor for a breast examination every two years.

Clinical Breast Examination:

            Women between the ages of 40-69 should do a breast self-exam once a month and go to the doctor for a breast exam once a year.

Taking a Mammogram:

Between 40-69 years old; It is performed for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women without complaints. It has performed every 2 years. During the scan, a standard film is taken for both breasts in two positions, one mediolateral oblique (MLO) and the other craniocaudal (CC). More comfortable service is offered to our women with the digital mammography devices used today.


The treatment of each patient differs; Multiple factors such as the location of the disease, the stage of the disease, the age of the patient and the presence of other health problems are effective in the decision of the treatment. Different treatment options such as surgery, radiation therapy (radiotherapy) and drug therapy (chemotherapy) are applied in breast cancer. You can access documents for breast cancer and other cancers from the Cancer Department’s Web site and be directed to the nearest screening center by using the “Which Screening is Right for Me?” link.




Both the urethra passes through the prostate and during ejaculation, semen empties into the urethra and comes out of the urethra.

Lateral Section of Male Urogenital System


The prostate is an essential organ like our eyes and ears, being only in men, and is at the exit of the urinary bladder, just below the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum (last part of the large intestine). Its main function is related to reproduction and it is a gland of 18-20 grams about the size of a walnut. Both the urinary canal (urethra) and the semen excretory ducts pass through it. The semen passes through the prostate and is eliminated into the urethra.

The importance of the prostate is due to the fact that it secretes a large part of the liquid called semen and that there are some substances in this liquid that give activity and mobility to the sperm and protect the sperm. Approximately 5-10% of the semen that comes out with ejaculation is composed of sperm cells, the remainder is composed of fluids from other glands (Seminal gland, Prostate and Bulbourethral gland) and which keep the sperm alive in the female reproductive organs. If there is a problem in prostate secretion, sperm movements and vitality will be impaired, so there may be a problem in conceiving a child, it might cause infertility.

The prostate enlarges in most of the men with aging, generally outward growth and inward growth, i.e. condensation of the urethra, the larger the prostate, the more difficult it is to urinate. When the prostate rises above its normal size, it does not follow similar path in every man. In some men, there is an enlargement of the urethra passing through the prostate, however, in some men there is an enlargement into the bladder. In this type of enlargement, while the prostate appears slightly enlarged on ultrasound images, serious complaints might occur in the patient. In cases where the prostate enlarges outward, if the urethra is not condensated, the patient does not complain the same even though the prostate is very large. When evaluating the prostate in male patients, we do not only look at its enlargement in volume, but mainly at the level of condensation of the urinary tract and difficulty in urination. The patient might have an outwardly enlarged prostate, if he has no difficulty in urination, and if the urinary tests and cancer screening tests are normal, the patient is usually monitored at 6-month intervals. Complaints about Prostate Enlargement:

  • A frequent need to pee,
  • Straining to pee,
  • Needing to get up frequently in the night to pee,
  • Needing to pee urgently, leaking urine,
  • Having the weak flow of of urine,
  • Not being able to pee at all
  • Swelling of the bladder

Getting a Diagnose of Prostate Enlargement

The diagnosis of prostate enlargement is get by blood and urine tests, ultrasonography, urine flow test (uroflow) and tests that are not disturb the patient in any way.

If the patient has persistent higher PSA despite antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment, if a nodule is identified in the prostate during rectal examination or ultrasound examination, it is certained whether there is a possible prostate cancer by performing a Multi-Parametric Prostate MRI examination and, if necessary, a Prostate Needle Biopsy under the guidance of Transrectal Prostate Ultrasound.

Because the treatment of benign prostate enlargement (BPH: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) is different, the treatment of prostate enlargement is different due to prostate cancer.

Both BPH and prostate cancer might be carried on one patient. Treatment might be diffirent according to condensation of urethra or stage of the disease. It is recommended that every man over the age of 40, whether or not they have urinary problems, need to visit a Urologist at least once a year for a prostate examination and PSA test. These check-ups are important, especially in people having prostate cancer in their first-degree relatives (father, brother). Because men having relatives with prostate cancer the risk of developing prostate cancer is 2-6 times higher than other men.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment (BPH)

BPH treatment divided into two groups as medical treatment and surgical treatment

In BPH treatment first aproach of treatment need to be medical treatment. Other treatments need to applied when medical treatment fails.

Purpose of drugs treatment, is to relieve the flow of urine, the drug groups used for this purpose and briefly their mechanisms of strenghts are as follows:

1-    Alpha Blockers:

Drugs in this group increase the urine flow rate by relaxing the smooth muscles in the bladder outlet and prostatic urethra, i.e, they provide more comfortable urination. (Tamsulosin, Terazosin, Alfuzosin, Silodosin, Doxazosin)

Since these drugs also relax smooth abdominal muscles, they cause hypotension.

Most known side effects:

1- Orthostatic Hypotension (Sudden drop in the blood pressure and darkening when sudden standing up, therefore it is recommended to stand up slowly)

2- Retrograde ejaculation (the semen cannot be eliminated, one has an orgasm, but because the bladder outlet is loosened, the semen is empjeculated into the bladder and then excreted from the urine)

3-Drugs that cause a decrease in prostate volume act by inhibiting alpha reductase and preventing the transformation of testosterone to di-hydro testosterone. (Drugs with active ingredients are Finasderid, Dutasteride)

4- A plant extract, sabal extract, is also sometimes used in medical treatment.

5- If urinary infection is identified, appropriate antibiotic treatment is administered according to the results of the culture-antibiogram test.

Surgical treatment are administered when medical treatment is not enough.This methods are followed as briefly:

Open Prostatectomy

Transurethral resection (TUR) is done with bipolar energy, plasmokinetics energy or monopolar energy

Laser Enucleation applied transurethrally is done with HOLEP-Holmium Laser.

Transurethrally applied Laser Vaporization is done with Vaporization-KTP, Diode, Thulium Laser

The most recently administered treatment; Transperineal Prostate Laser Ablation Treatment. In this method, we administer laser directly into the prostate with fine needles, painlessly placing laser fiber tips into the prostate without any surgery. Since it is administered with local anesthesia, it is safely administered to elderly patients with severe disease. This practice has been started in our clinic.

It is also possible to treat prostate cancer with this method. Cancerous cells that are get early and have not metastasis beyond the prostate are treated much more easily by laser burning than other treatment methods.

In other treatment methods of prostate cancer, the entire prostate (neoplasm and cortex) is removed together with the seminal sacs. This procedure is called Radical Prostatectomy. The procedure is applied with one of the Open Surgery, Robotic Surgery, Laparoscopic Surgery methods. Depending on the pathology result, other treatments such as radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and chemotherapy are applied if necessary.


Endoscopic View Of Enlargement Prostate



TUR Prostatectomy Schematic View


Laser Prostatik Vaporizasyon (Buharlaştırma) şematik görünüm


Lazer Vaporizasyon sonrası prostatik üretranın endoskopik görünümü

The best treatment method is EDSWT in men who have erectil dysfunction.

EDSWT (ERECTIL DISFONCTION SHOCK WAVE THERAPY) : is a treatment that has no surgery, anesthesia, hospitilization, painless, needing aproaximetly 45 minutes, administering with a special device penis and around the penis.

It has two methods that applied:

  1. Electrical shock waves formed by the piezo-electric system
  2. Magnetic shock waves formed by the Electro-Magnetic system

In our hospital EDSWT theraphy is applied with NOVAMEDTEK brand device (Novamed ED60), which creates magnetic shock waves, with a linear applicator

It is administered 6 clinics, totally, twice a week for 3 weeks. (ex: Monday- Friday)

In every clinic a total of 3000 shock waves are given to the penis and its circumference by making 7500 shock wave shots from each focus in 4 foci.

A total of 18,000 shots are made in 6 sessions.

Addition to EDSWT theraphy PRP theraphy is recommended and supported with medical treatment. 3 months later, patient come for checking and if it is necessary 1 more EDSWT and PRP treatments cure are applied.

The main problem in Erectile Dysfunction is the consentating of the veins coming to the penis due to various reasons and therefore the erection problem as a result of the inability of sufficient blood go to the erection bodies of the penis for erection.

Erectile Dysfunction is seen more often in one who is over 40 year-old, has diabet, prostate disease, get Radical Prostatectomy operation because of prostate cancer, undergo radiotherapy to pelvic area, has hypercholesterolemic, hypertension, cardiac trouble and vascular disease, smokes and drinks alchol, is obese, has psychological problems.

EDSWT is a new theraphy method developed for erectile dysfunction, which is seen approximately 50% of over 40 year-old men.

In the scientific researches, has been proven that the magnetic shock waves made by the Novamed ED 60 device treats the insulted vascular internal structure and form new microveins (NEOENDOTELIZATION and ANGIOGENESIS) through stem cells, therefore increasing  the blood flow in the penis and treating the main cause of the erection dysfunction.

Erection Dysfunction is more successfull when it is applied with EDSWT theraphy and PRP  theraphy and medical theraphy

PRP (PLATELET Rich Plasma), is a plasma fluid getting from one’s own blood.

Approximately 5 cc of PRP liquid is get by treating 15cc of blood taken from one with the help of the filters and centrifuge in the disposable PRP kit. There are intensely platelets and growth factors (PDGF, VEGF, TGF-alpha and TGF-beta) in the PRP fluid. PRP fluid is given to the erectile bodies of the penis (Corpus Cavernosum = Cavernous Body) with an insulin injector needle. When PRP liquid is injected into the diseased area, it repairs this area, heals tissue, neoplasm, and rejevunates the stem cells in these tissues. However, PRP treatment is not directly a STEM CELL treatment.

In the reaction problem that occur due to organic reasons, the occlusion of the capillaries in the penis, cell death due to aging, called apoptosis, increasing collage tissue instead of dying cells, development of fibrosis, the erection function and elasticity of the penis are destroyed. The capillaries in the cavernous bodies that provide hardening are decreased. And smooth muscles are replaced by hard, inelastic hard fibrotic tissues. Therefore, the hardening of the penis and its ability to maintain its hardness is destroyed.

Injecting the PRP liquid into the cavernous body providing erection of the penis, providing new veins, providing erection (ANGIOGENESIS), regeneration of tissues, (REGENERATION) and rejuvenation.

In erectile dysfunction, PRP theraphy is applied once in two days, totally 3 clinics. Maintenance therapy as a single dose at 3, 6 and 12 months increases efficacy.

In erectile dysfunction treatment both EDSWT and PRP are effective methods. Scientific researchs show that treatment is more efficent when these two methods is applied together.

First, by applying ESWT treatment, micro-traumatic, stimulating areas are made in the cavernous bodies with shock waves, and the platelets start to repair this area and start the new vein formation process.

PRP fluid, on the other hand, repairs the damaged areas in the cavernous body with higher efficiency, since it is a fluid enriched with platelets (thrombocyte) with the procedures performed.

For this reason, in the treatment of Erectile Dysfunction, we achieve the most effective treatment results with PRP application at the end of EDSWT application.

Urology is the brach of medicine that examines urinary system of women and men and genital system of men.

Urınary system: is a sytem that formed with kidney, urethrea, bladder, ureter

Urethrea is approaximetly 3-5 centimetres. It is between bladder and the end of the vagina. In men it is between tip of penis and bladder, It is approaximetly 20-25 centimetres. It goes through end of the baldder and continues in the penis.

The branch of urology gets a diagnose and treats diseases of urinary system of men and women, also genital system of men (penis and testicles).

The branch of urology, besides open surgeries, also performs closed surgeries based on modern technological methods such as endoscopy and laporoscopy. We can classify these attempts as follows.

  1. ANDROLOGY ( Treatment and Diagnosis of Sexual Dysfunctions of Men)
  • Men Interfility
  • Erectil Dysfunciton, Medical and Interventional Treatment (EDSWT- Shockwave Therapy- PRP Therapy),
  • Premature Ejeculation
  • Maleformation in penis and curvature ( Peyronie’s disease)
  • Varicocele (varicose veins in the testicle) surgical and medical treatments (Treatment of varicocele with MICROSURGERY using intraoperative doppler under microscopic vision)


  • Kidney, ureter, bladder, disease of prostate, endoscopic (closed) surgeries and treatments.Böbrek, üreter, mesane, prostat hastalıkları (stone, tumor, stenosis)
  • Diagnostic Cystoscopy, ureterorenoscopy procedures
  • Ureteroscopic (closed) removal of kidney, ureter and bladder stones using laser (URS-RIRC)
  • Transrectal Prostate Guided Biopsy procedure with Fusion Biopsy technique in prostate diseases.
  • Endoscopic (closed) Prostatectomy operations with Laser or Bipolar system in prostate diseases
  • Laparoscopic kidney, bladder and prostate surgeries
  • Non-surgical prostate treatment using laser (Trans Perineal Laser Prostate Ablation Treatment TPLA)
  • Treatment of laser burning of the cancer applied without removing the prostate in prostate cancer (focal ablation in prostate cancer-organ preserving micro-invasive surgery)
  1. Woman Urology- Urogynecology
  • Medical and surgical treatments of incontinence
  • Bladder, rectum and uterine prolapse surgeries
  • TOT, TVT surgeries
  1. Urologic Oncology
  • Open and endoscopic (closed) surgeries and medical treatments of kidney, bladder, prostate, testicle tumors
  1. Pediatric Urology
  • Undescended testis
  • Medical and surgical treatments of hypospadias, vesicoureteral reflux, enuresis nocturna, enürezis nokturna, hydrocele, bubonocele, circumcision


Hiccups and sneezing are very common in newborns.

Hiccups occur as a result of contraction of the diaphragm muscle, which separates the chest cavity from abdominal cavity. Vocal cords are pushed nearer during contraction, which results in the characteristic hiccup sound.

Occurring frequently in the first months of life and less frequently until the age of 1 year, hiccup is a natural reflex, indicating that the infant is full, and everything is normal with her stomach growing and digestive system developing normally. It can usually occur when the stomach is full after feeding, when she cannot pass gas properly, when she swallows air, at times of rapid temperature change and when she is excited. The common conception that “belly is growing” is not completely unfounded. Hiccups start as early as the fourth gestational month in the mother’s womb, as the first respiratory action and hiccups after parturition help the development of heart and lungs. Hiccups are usually not a source of discomfort for infants, but are surely bothersome for parents. When the infant is unable to fall asleep due to hiccups, making her swallow may eliminate the spasm of the diaphragm muscle. If it persists, rub your finger on a lemon and have your infant taste it. Such unfamiliar and sour taste will cause a shock, making her hold her breath for a few seconds which may resolve the diaphragm spasm and cure the hiccups.

Sneezing, especially when it happens after bathing your baby, may cause concern that the baby may have gotten cold. You might be compelled to turn up the heater to make it extra warm in the apartment, putting on layers over layers of extra clothing to keep her warm, putting a hat on her head, which would in turn make the air dryer in the apartment. Dry air dehydrates the mucosa in the airways causing cracks, and microbes may contaminate these cracks causing illness. And the culprit would be falsely identified as “the baby got cold after bathing.” Which in turn compels the mother to bath the bay once a week during winter months to avoid illness. Getting cold is not a cause of illness; but microbes are. And sneezing is an indication that her tiny nose is clogged up and a reflex to help her unclog it. Infants’ tiny nostrils can get blocked very easily, causing difficulty breathing and nursing, as the baby must breathe through the nose when feeding. A few years back, I had received a phone call from a postpartum mother: “Nurse Ayşe, I had attended one of your seminars, and I had not problems beginning breastfeeding. But for the past two days, my baby is not taking my nipple. I have plenty of milk, and he advised I should harvest my breast milk and feed it using a baby bottle. But she won’t take the baby bottle also, so we are feeding her with a spoon.” I asked them to come for a visit, thinking that perhaps they were doing something wrong so I could try assisting her with breastfeeding the baby. When they showed up, I could tell from the way the baby was breathing that her nose was clogged up.

I applied a few drops of saline into her nose and cleaned her nose with a nasal aspirator. After that, the boor thing began breastfeeding and did not stop for nearly an hour! As you can imagine, infants are unable to clean nasal secretions like we can, and so mucus dries and crusts blocking the nose especially in winter months. And they might reach by sneezing even when someone opens the door and comes inside, as their tiny and sensitive noses can be easily blocked with the dirt and dust of this new world. Therefore, I would recommend cleaning her nose frequently with saline and a nasal aspirator to help her breathe and breastfeed easily. Because they are in lying position most of the time and nasal secretions flow back into the nasal passage, she may sometimes breathe noisily. Don’t be alarmed with the wheezing sound. They cannot clear their throat, like we can, by coughing away the secretions, and in this case also, saline can help eliminate the wheezing sound. If she has sniffles, however, it may be important, as the Eustachian tube has a large opening into the nasal passage while the tube itself is short. And because the infant is usually lying on her back, sniffles may increase the secretions which may flow into this canal and cling on the walls, providing an attractive spot for microbes and bacteria to grow, leading to an ear infection. Ear infections require attention in young infants. Because the ear is very close to the brain, inflammation may spread to the meninx, leading to meningitis. By applying nasal lavage with saline around the clock will prevent the secretion to become thicker, turning to a greenish color, and cling on the ear canal. Also, it may be advisable to place a pillow to raise her head a bit to help the secretion flow downward, and not toward the ear canal. You might notice some mucus in her stool during this time, but it is nothing to worry about; nasal secretion is also excreted in feces.


It is a type of convulsion which is accompanied by fever. It is the most common type of childhood convulsions. It is usually seen in children aged 6 months to 5 years, and most frequently in the 18-22 month old age group. Familial inheritance is suspected.
Convulsion may manifest with loss of consciousness, eyes rolling back, blue lips, stopping breathing, muscle contractions in all or some parts of the body and urinary or fecal incontinence. Body temperature rises to 38.5°C or higher before or after convulsion.
Febrile convulsion usually lasts short, in most cases lasting for less than 3 minutes and ending by the time a doctor is consulted. In a quarter of patients, the first sign of fever may be febrile convulsion.
Convulsions lasting less than 15 minutes and not recurring within 24 hours are classified as simple convulsion.

Recurrence Risk of Seizures
• Experiencing the first febrile convulsion at less than one year of age
• History of epilepsy or febrile convulsion in first-degree relatives
• Having frequent infections
• Convulsion occurring at slightly higher body temperature (less than 40°C)
• Time between rising body temperature and convulsion is less than 2 hours
• Warnings for family members:
• Febrile convulsion may involve familial predisposition
• Febrile convulsion is not an epileptic seizure
• Risk of recurrence is lower after three years of age
• Short-lasting febrile convulsions do not cause brain damage
• Vaccination is not a risk factor

Febrile Convulsion May Recur at a Rate of 1/3, in which case:
• Lay the patient on a flat surface on their side
• Do not attempt to restrain the patient
• Do not attempt to open the jaw, arms and legs during the convulsions
• Do not feed anything orally
• Do not have the patient smell onions or other substances
• Do not pour cold water on the patient; however, a warm shower may be useful.


• Those who exercise must consume a varied diet of healthy nutrients to increase their performance.
• There are six main categories of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water.
• Nutrients have three major functions: supporting growth and development, providing energy, and regulating the metabolism.
• Those who exercise must consume at least 2-3 servings of milk, yoghurt, cheese, 2-3 servings of meat, fish, beans, eggs and dried nuts, 3-5 servings of vegetables, 2-4 servings of fruits, 6-11 servings of bread, cereals, rice and pasta.

• Key carbohydrate sources that those who exercise must consume include bread, cereals, rice and pasta.
• Those who exercise should maintain a steady blood glucose level. They should consume foods rich in complex carbohydrates to keep their muscle glycogen reserves full.
• Those who exercise must consume an appropriate (moderate) level of proteins. Overconsumption of protein will not increase muscle mass.
• Intake of fatty foods should be limited, as they take longer to consume and are harmful if consumed in excessive amounts.
• Antioxidant vitamins, i.e. A, C and E, are particularly important for those who exercise intensively. They help cleanse the body of toxins that are generated during heavy exercise.
• Iron, calcium and zinc are highly important for those who exercise.
• You do not need additional vitamins, minerals or food supplements if you are eating an adequate and balanced diet.
• It is best to consume a varied diet, mainly composed of plant sources, limiting intake of animal-derived nutrients.
• It is imperative to always strike a balance in any choice of diet.
• Diet should be built on carbohydrate-rich nutrients. It is best to consume cereals and cereal derivatives, like bread and pasta, a few times a day. As shown in the nutrition pyramid, cereals and cereal derivatives should make up the basis of all meals. According to World Health Organization recommendations, more than half of daily energy intake should come from these groups of foods, as they are low in fat and rich in nutrients and active nutrients. The nutrients in this group make a significant contribution to intake of proteins, dietary fibers, minerals (i.e. calcium, potassium and magnesium) and Vitamin B.
• To increase fiber intake, try to eat whole-wheat bread, pasta and other cereal products.
• Do not avoid carbohydrates. They are a key source of energy for the organism, and they have lower energy compared to fats. A gram of carbohydrates provides 4 calories, whereas a gram of fat provides 9 calories.
• Foods with fiber have numerous benefits and they are rich in complex carbohydrates. Dietary fibers, which belong in this group of carbohydrates prevents constipation and diverticulitis, helps prevent hemorrhoids and reduce blood cholesterol. They also play a key role in regulating bodyweight.
• Prefer fresh vegetables and fruits (at least 400 grams a day). Most of us do not eat enough of these foods, but they provide basic micronutrients (like minerals and vitamins) which are essential to proper working of our organism. In particular, fresh vegetables and fruits are rich in iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamins A and C, folic acid, vitamin B6, dietary fibers, essential nutrients and non-nutrient ingredients. Also, vegetables and fruits have lower fat and energy content, i.e. they are “low-energy” foods. Therefore, consuming them in our daily diet reduces the risk of obesity and associated illnesses (e.g. cardiovascular disease, some types of cerebral disorders, certain cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus).
• Animal-derived foods should be consumed in moderation. Animal-derived foods are not only important for growth and development of children and adolescents, they are also essential for proper functioning of the organism. This group consists of biologically valuable, high-quality proteins and essential amino acids that the organism cannot synthesize. They are also rich in vitamin B12 (which is not available in plant-based foods), iron, magnesium, zinc, chromium and fats.
Fish, which is unfortunately not consumed in sufficient quantities in our diet, are rich in omega 3 fatty acid, which is highly protective against chronic illnesses. It is important to increase our fish consumption.
Low-fat milk and dairy products should be preferred. The foods in this group are a good source of calcium, essential for bone development, and high-quality proteins and vitamins A, D and B. Cheese is a good source of calcium, but it contains a high amount of salt. Therefore, low-salt types should be preferred.
Exercising reduces the bad cholesterol (LDL) and increases the good cholesterol (HDL).
• Consume plenty of fluids. Water is a vital substance, which must be consumed in sufficient quantities, i.e. at least 2 liters per day for adults, up to 3 liters minimum during times of hot weather or intensive physical activity. Plain water is both a tasty and healthy source of fluids. Fruit juices, milk, tea, coffee and nonalcoholic beverages are also good choices for satisfying the need for fluids.
• Reduced water in the body when exercising diminished performance.
• Those who exercise should consume 100 ml of water every 15-20 minutes.
• Cool, plain water is the best beverage for those who exercise.
• You should not wait until feeling thirsty to drink water.
• Check the color and volume of your urine to determine whether you are sufficiently hydrated.
• Take your weight before and after exercise to determine the amount of fluid lost, and replenish it by drinking the same amount of water. To increase fluid intake, you should consume fluids throughout the day and eat plenty of vegetables and fruits which are rich in fluid content. Plain water is the best beverage for those who exercise. Besides water, other beverages like milk, ayran, juices and soups are also useful for hydrating our body. On the other hand, tea and coffee is not retained and quickly excreted. Tea and coffee consumption should be minimized as far as possible. Caffeinated foods and beverages (e.g. coffee) should be avoided. Caffeine stimulates urine production and causes dehydration, besides the inconvenience of a full bladder.
Fluid intake should be increased before, during and after exercise. Drink 2-3 glasses of water to fill up the fluid reserves 2 hours before starting exercising. And drink half a glass of water every 15-20 minutes during exercise. Make sure everyone has a separate water bottle. The water lost during exercise should be replenished, which is why you must drink plenty of water after exercise. Consume at least 8-10 glasses of water every day. Water loss is higher during hot and humid weather, and therefore you must try and drink more water during hot and humid days. Record your weight before and after exercise to determine the weight loss, and drink water to compensate for it. Athlete’s beverages may be used during prolonged exercises or competitions. These beverages contain 6 to 8% of carbohydrates and electrolytes that athletes lose during exercise, and are suitable for prolonged endurance exercises (e.g. running, swimming, cycling). However, instead of athlete beverages, you may also dilute fruit juice half and half to obtain the carbohydrates needed during exercise. For instance, you can add 200 ml of water to a bottle of commercially available 200 ml apple juice and use it during exercise. Also, you can mix 12-15 sugar cubes, half a spoon of salt and some lemon juice in a liter of water to obtain a beverage similar to what athletes use.
Do not wait to feel thirsty to drink water, because the sensation of thirstiness dissipates when the body is severely dehydrated. Anyhow, you can determine whether you are sufficiently hydrated by checking the color of your urine: if your urine is dark colored, you are dehydrated, or if it is light colored, your body is sufficiently hydrated. Also, urinating less frequently than usual, it may also be a sign of dehydration. Drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration. Avoid taking in more energy than what you have expended.
If your energy intake is high, i.e. “you eat more than you burn,” your body mass increases, which may cause chronic illnesses over time. We have failed to preserve our traditional dietary habits and instead, adopted ill-advised “new lifestyles,” consuming the diets that go along with them (e.g. hamburgers, pizzas, fries) while abandoning walking and cycling, instead using motorized transports. We move much less, sit in front of the computer or TV during on our free time.
A healthy bodyweight can be achieved only by consuming adequate amounts of healthy foods, as shown in the nutrition pyramid, and by exercising daily. A healthy bodyweight is dependent on various factors, including sex, height, age and heritable factors. Growing body mass is a risk factor for various diseases, such as heart disease and cancer. Fat forms in the body when we consume more energy than we burn. Such extra energy intake may result from overconsumption of proteins, fats, carbohydrates or alcohol. However, fats are the highest source of energy. Physical exercise is not only a good way to consume energy, it makes us feel better. It has been shown that walking daily at a brisk pace (@6 km/60 minutes) is sufficient to maintain a daily balance of energy. Daily walks can be completed in several shorter sessions. The same effect can be achieved by cycling for 30-60 minutes, swimming or other sports, or jogging.
• Check your bodyweight and body composition: “Body Mass Index (BMI)” should be in the range of 18.5 to 25 kg/m2. You can calculate your BMI using the formula: BMI = weight (kg) / height (m)2 to check if your bodyweight is normal. Example: a person who is 160 cm tall and weighing 55 kg has a BMI of 55/(1.60)2 ) 21.4, which is in the normal range. However, BMI is not an accurate indicator of proper bodyweight for individuals who exercise regularly and heavily (e.g. athletes). Individuals with a large muscle mass would have a higher-than-normal BMI, although they may not be overweight (e.g. 26). This is a common occurrence among athletes. Therefore, body composition (fat percentage) should be also accounted for. If body fat percentage and bodyweight are both high, the person needs to exercise and adopt a diet under dietitian supervision, with a target of losing 0.5 to 1 kg a week. It is inadvisable to exceed this rate of weight loss.
• Consume a balanced diet. If you can keep your servings at an adequate level, you may eat anything you wish, without having to exclude specific foods from your diet. If eating out, share your servings with a friend.
• Eat frequently. Skipping meals, particularly breakfast, would lead to eating more at subsequent meals, and cause reduced work output and uncontrolled hunger. Eating snacks between meals may help satisfy hunger, but must be eaten in moderation so as not to replace a regular meal.

A healthy diet means consuming an adequate and balanced mixture of essential macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats) and micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) which are required to maintain proper functioning of our body. Our diet must meet our nutrition needs to support normal growth and development in children and adolescents and correct functioning of organs, both at rest and when exercising. The quality of a diet, the quantities consumed and the timing of meals affect exercise performance. Taking care to eat a variety of foods ensures adequate intake of essential vitamins and minerals. While there is not a magic formula, essential elements of diet to support good performance and wellbeing include the following:
• Eat adequately to meet energy need
• Obtain energy mainly from carbohydrates
• Regulate foods and drinks to meet carbohydrate needs during and after performance
• Eat a varied diet to meet protein, vitamin and mineral needs
• Take an adequate amount of fluids to maintain hydration
• Take care with using dietary supplements.

Ask yourself the following for a healthy life:
How many main meals and snack meals do you have?
Have you ever considered which nutrients you eat in your daily diet (at breakfast, lunch and dinner)?
How much fresh fruits and vegetables do you consume on a daily basis, and how does that compare to the optimal level?
How active are you physically in your free time?

The nutrients that we consume are essential to providing the energy that we need to support our heart, brain, liver and other organs and to maintain life support functions, such as breathing. We do not sit all the time; we move, change locations and work, all of which require energy. A good and popular metaphor is a car: can it run without fuel?
The energy which is essential to our being is mainly provided by sugar (carbohydrates). Only in situations where carbohydrates is not available may fats (lipids) can be used as a source of energy. Fats essentially provider energy, but they also carry vitamins A, D, E and K, which are soluble in fat. Energy may only be obtained from proteins. For normal growth, development and proper functioning of organs, our organism also needs vitamins and minerals.
The studies have shown that our eating habits are not particularly healthy and require improvement. Available data, combined with anthropometric measurements, suggest a grim public health outlook for our societies. Based on BMIs, more than 50% of people are overweight, and nearly a half have high blood pressure.
Studies have shown that exercise regulates high blood pressure.
Considering that only 15% of the population engages in exercise for at least 30 minutes 2 times a month, the picture on unhealthy eating habits and physical activity is indeed grim.


Obviously, breast milk is a miraculous nutrient for newborns; in fact, calling breast milk merely a nutrient does not do it justice. Not a day passes without a study reporting new findings of the benefits of mother’s milk. A study published in June 2015 has shown that incidence of leukemia was significantly reduced in infants who were breastfed for at least 6 months compared to those who were not breastfed, or fed breast milk for a shorter period of time. The study reported that the incidence of leukemia, accounting for 30% of childhood cancers, was 19% lower in children who were breastfed for at least 6 months. Scientists have various hypotheses to explain this situation, including mainly the protective role of immune system components which are transferred to the infant by breast milk.

Besides the often-reported new information on the benefits of mother’s milk, let us remember WHO and UNICEF recommendations on breastfeeding.

• Infants must receive only breast milk and nothing else, not even water, for the first 6 months.
• Assistance should be provided to the postpartum mother to begin breastfeeding as soon as possible.
• No supplements should be recommended during infancy, unless medically indicated.
• Pacifiers should be withheld until the infant is 3 to 4 weeks old and able to properly suck on the nipple.
• The sleeping place of the infant should be close to the mother.

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Last update date: 13.05.2024, 21:07

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Last update date: 13.05.2024, 21:07